Prisms are solid glass optics that are sanded and polished to form geometrically and optically distinct shapes. Angle, position, and optical flat crystal count help define type and function. Sir Isaac Newton demonstrated the use of a recognized prism, including dispersing a white light source into its component colors. The equipment used for this application is a refractometer and spectral element. As a result of this initial discovery, prisms have been used in systems to “refract” optical fibers, “fold” the system into a smaller space, change the direction of the image (also known as rotation or alignment), and merge or divide portions of the reflective surface of the light beam. These uses are very common in the use of telescopes, magnifying glasses, measuring instruments, and many other applications.
A prominent feature of a prism is its ability to simulate the reflection of light in the prism medium by simulating it as a planar mirror system. Replacing mirror components can be a useful prism application because they both refract or fold light and alter image alignment. To achieve an effect similar to a single prism, it is often necessary to use multiple mirrors. Therefore, replacing several mirrors with a single prism can reduce potential calibration errors, improve accuracy, and reduce the size and complexity of the system.